Assoc. Prof. Süleyman Eserdağ, MDCosmetic Gynecologist & Sexual Therapist
Fellow of European Committee of Sexual Medicine (FECSM)
Editor of the Book ‘Female Aesthetic and Functional Genital Surgery’

Causes Of Vaginismus

Causes Of Vaginismus

Among the causes of vaginismus, there are psychological and physical problems. The treatment of vaginismus should also be performed according to the "cause" after the vaginismus reasons are determined.

What are the causes of vaginismus?

The causes of vaginismus are mainly 90% psychological and 10% anatomical (organic) causes.

1. Upbringing and parental attitudes

Vaginismus problem is frequently seen in overprotective-conservative families, traditional and religiously repressive families. In some of the patients, there is a deep belief that sexuality is bad, dirty and sinful. Thus, young girls take themselves under protection from the early ages. It is the main reason that such beliefs as ‘hymen is a sign of honor, it should certainly be protected and it is everything which belongs to a girl’ are transfused into brains since from early ages.

Strict religious rules and moral responsibilities which are imposed to the brains since from early ages are among these reasons. Especially in children who are raised by grandparents, those living in orphanages, those who are raised by their relatives with ‘fiduciary thought’, singletons raised by their parents; parental pressure is seen more.

Due to deep meanings attributed to hymen and genital area in vaginismus patients, this area is pushed out of the body from a very young age. The person has forbidden herself to touch or look at this area or even open the legs. As Hera Clinic, one of our main treatment approaches in such patients is to achieve conformity with this area.

However, vaginismus can also be seen in girls with modern family upbringing. According to our own studies as Hera-Vaginismus Treatment Association, this rate is around 15%.

2. Lack of sexual information

The lack of information about sexuality, the family's disregard for sexuality, having no information about sexuality may cause vaginismus.

3. Wrong information about the first night- Sexual Myths

Thinking about the first day as difficult, painful and very bleeding, thoughts of the penis to go somewhere wrong like urinary hole or anus, fear of penis’ being stuck in the vagina, thoughts of vagina are being closed or narrow may cause vaginismus. ‘Urban myths’ about sexuality and the first night (nuptial) which are told among people are called ‘Sexual Myths’. Sexual myths are among the most common causes of vaginismus in Turkey.

4. Personality structure

Most of the vaginismus patients are deeply affected by the events they witness or experience. The brain encodes especially the negative events and keeps in memory. People usually have a tendency of negative thinking. They are more interested in the ‘empty part of the glass rather than full part’.

On the other hand, perfectionist structure and high auto-control can lead to vaginismus problem. Sexual reluctance, sexual disgust and inability to have orgasms are frequently observed in women with these characteristics. Vaginismus patients usually have a high level of anxiety. They may have many fears such as claustrophobia, acrophobia, blood donation, cat, dog, insect, examination, gynecologist, dentist etc. They are known as ‘fond of comfort’ among the people.

5. Sexual Traumas

Sexual harassment, rape, incest, childhood sexual traumas are among the causes of vaginismus. In addition, witnessing intercourse of parents at early ages or hearing the sound of their intercourse, watching birth or watching porno is also among other sexual traumas.

6. Difficult gynecological examinations and interventions

A difficult gynecological examination by a gynecologist, difficult birth, abortion or miscarriage can cause vaginismus in someone who has a normal sexual life. This situation is called ’secondary vaginismus’.


7. Hymen and genital area problems

Hymen's rigid, thick, high-edged, septate structure, vaginal stenosis, small vagina or vaginal agenesis, vaginal septums are congenital anomalies and may interfere with sexual intercourse. Bartholin cysts, intra-vaginal myomas and space-occupying tumors in the outer genital area can cause sexual dysfunction and pain problem in sexual penetration.

8. Vaginismus with unknown reason

Some women may not have any of the above-mentioned reasons. This should be interpreted as reason is not known rather than there is no reason. Sometimes, real causes show up during vaginismus treatment.

The gynecological examination is compulsory to determine the cause of vaginismus!

The first address for those who do not have sexual intercourse should be gynecologist physicians with experience in sexual treatments. Vaginismus causes are determined with a detailed gynecological evaluation and then appropriate treatment is started.

After determining the causes of vaginismus, individual treatment methods should be applied. Today, thanks to modern vaginismus treatment methods, it has become possible to reach permanent results in a short time.




In this section, you will find some of the hands-on aesthetic genital surgery (cosmetic gynecology) courses, trainings and meetings given by Assoc. Prof. Süleyman Eserdağ.

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Assoc. Prof. Süleyman Eserdağ, MDAssoc. Prof. Süleyman Eserdağ, MDCosmetic Gynecologist & Sexual Therapist
Fellow of European Committee of Sexual Medicine (FECSM)
Editor of the Book ‘Female Aesthetic and Functional Genital Surgery’
+90 (530) 763 34 00
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